Information About Leptospirosis
We Have to Know about the Leptospirosis
- Leptospirosis is essentially an animal infection of Spirochetes bacteria known as Leptospira. The clinical condition starts as a simple mild fever to the severe fatal condition by damaging the liver & kidney
Causes of Leptospirosis
- Rats play a very important role as a reservoir of infection. Once a rat is infected, for life long it spreads the disease. Rat’s urine is the main source for spreading the infection to animals and man
- All domestic animals including cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, cats and dogs are the reservoir of infection
- Man gets the infection through skin abrasions or through the intact mucous membrane by direct contact with urine or tissues of infected animals or through contact of broken skin with soil & water contaminated by the urine of an infected animal
Do’s of Leptospirosis
- clean hygiene is necessary
Signs & Symptoms of Leptospirosis
Bacterium Leptospirosis :
- High fever, weakness, muscle pain and tenderness
- An intensive headache & Photophobia
- Sometimes Loose motions & vomiting
- Less common symptoms include joint aches, bone pain, sore throat, and abdominal pain.
Pulmonary Syndrome :
- Cough with or without blood
Weil’s Disease (Fatal Condition) :
- Fever, hemorrhages, jaundice
- Renal impairment (reduces urine output or no urine).
- Enlarged liver & spleen
- Skin rash
Risk Factors of Leptospirosis
- Occupational exposure — farmers, abattoir workers, veterinarians, sewer workers, rice field workers, and military personnel
Low standard of life and low housing standards :
- Sharing or living together with live-stalk like cattle, sheep, goats pigs, horses
- House with rodents population
Medical advice for Leptospirosis
- If you have any of the signs & symptoms with above risk factors for Leptospirosis, see a doctor
Self Care for Leptospirosis
- Follow strictly to control rodent (Rat) population.
- Avoid contacting animal urine and soil & water contaminated by animals. Safe disposal of animal wastes
- People of high risk shall bath daily after finishing the work and shall use a mask
Treatment for Leptospirosis
- Penicillin is the drug of choice
- possibly blood transfusions and hemodialysis Mild infections are treated with antibiotics such as amoxicillin or doxycycline, given by mouth. For severe infections, antibiotics such as penicillin or ampicillin are given intravenously. Fluids containing salts may also be given
- People with the infection do not have to be isolated, but care must be taken when handling and disposing of their urine.
- People with leptospirosis may need blood transfusions, and if they have kidney failure, they may need hemodialysis
Investigations for Leptospirosis
- Diagnosis is most frequently done by testing the blood for antibodies to the bacteria.