Information about Diabetic Diet
We Have to Know about the Diabetic Diet
Key principles are to:-
- Achieve weight control by reducing calories.
- Reduce the intake of dietary fat (specifically saturated fat).
- Individualize guidelines for carbohydrates based on the type of diabetes you have and the control of your blood sugar levels.
There are two main forms of diabetes. The nutritional goals for each one are
With type 1 diabetes:-
- Studies show that total carbohydrates have the most effect on the amount of insulin needed and the maintenance of blood sugar control
- A delicate balance of carbohydrate intake, insulin, and physical activity is necessary for the best blood sugar levels
- If these are not in balance, there can be wide swings in blood glucose levels
- If you have type 1 diabetes and are on a fixed dose of insulin, the carbohydrate content of your meals and snacks should be consistent from day to day
- Weight and growth patterns are a useful way to determine if a child with type 1 diabetes is getting enough nutrition
- Try not to withhold food or give food when a child is not hungry
With type 2 diabetes:-
- With type 2 diabetes, the main focus is on weight control, because 80% – 90% of people with this disease are overweight
- A meal plan, with reduced calories, even distribution of carbohydrates, and replacement of some carbohydrate with healthier monounsaturated fats
helps improve blood glucose levels
- Examples of foods high in monounsaturated fat include almonds, walnuts, and other nuts
- These can be substituted for carbohydrates, but portions should be small because these foods are high in calories
- In many cases, moderate weight loss and increased physical activity can control type 2 diabetes. Some people will need to take oral medications or insulin in addition to lifestyle changes
Children with type 2 diabetes present special challenges. Meal plans should be recalculated often to account for the child’s change in calorie requirements due to growth. Three smaller meals and 3 snacks are often required to meet calorie needs. Changes in eating habits and increased physical activity help reduce insulin resistance and improve blood sugar control. When at parties or during holidays, your child may still eat sugar-containing foods, but have fewer carbohydrates on that day. For example, if the birthday cake or other sweets are eaten, the usual daily amount of potatoes or rice should be eliminated. This substitution helps keep calories and carbohydrates in better balance.
A registered dietitian can help you best decide how to balance your diet with carbohydrates, protein, and fat. Here are some general guidelines:-
- Reduce the amount of dietary fat. Dietary cholesterol should be less than 200 – 300 mg per day.
- Additionally, intake of trans-unsaturated fats should be minimized. These are better known as partially hydrogenated oils.
- Reducing fat intake may help contribute to modest weight loss.
- Keep protein intake in the range of 15 – 20% of total calories
- Choices low in fat are recommended such as nonfat dairy products, legumes, skinless poultry and fish
- Carbohydrate choices should come from whole grains bread or cereals, brown rice, beans, fruits, and vegetables
- Increasing dietary fiber is a general guideline for the entire population rather than specifically for people with diabetes
- Portions and type of carbohydrate affect calories and is reflected by weight and blood glucose control
- Limit sources of high-calorie and low-nutritional-value foods, including those with a high content of sugars
- Sugar-containing foods should be substituted for other carbohydrate sources (such as potatoes) instead of just adding them on to the meal